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中国考生常见英语语法错误-名师说

来源:      浏览:      发布日期:2019-05-10 10:44

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语法是对语言进行研究后,系统地总结归纳出来的一系列语言规则,对于我们理解和规范使用英语是很重要的。对于雅思考试来说,在口语和写作里面就明确规定了,语法是一个重要的评分点。语法对于听力和阅读来说也是很重要的,例如,阅读中会有很多长难句,句子结构的正确划分,是我们理解的一个重要前提,否则,就算句中没有生词,有时理解上会跟作者表达的意思有所偏差。本文将从句子层面总结中国学生常犯的语法错误。

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广州新航道李莲鹏老师 雅思语法/托福语法主讲/SAT阅读/托福阅读/雅思魔鬼练题班主讲

广东外语外贸大学高翻专业硕士,西安外国语大学学士,持有人事部二级口、笔译证书,授课条理清晰,分析到位。

1.主谓不一致

主谓一致指的是谓语动词在人称和数上要和主语保持一致,例如,在一般现在时中,主语为第三人称单数时,谓语动词也要用相应的第三人称单数形式。在写句子时,应注意句子的主语是什么,切记勿把修饰语或从句中的名词当句子的主语。

误把修饰语中的名词当主语

例1:The books bought by the man was first published in 1970.

改:The books bought by the man were first published in 1970.

注解:这句话的主语为the books,是复数,而不是修饰语bought by the man中的the man,所以谓语动词应为were,而不是was。

Of结构的名词短语

例2:The doors of the room was broken.

改:The doors of the room were broken.

注解:如果主语是“...of...”的词组,谓语的形式需要和“of”之前的名词保持一致。这句话的主语不是所有格of后面的the door,核心的名词是the doors,所以谓语动词应用复数形式的were。

从句当主语

例3:How governments will address global warming have attracted the attention of the world.

改:How governments will address global warming has attracted the attention of the world。  注解:这句话的主语是个主语从句(How…warming),而不是从句的主语governments,主语从句可以看作是一件事情,所以谓语动词形式应用单数形式。

定语从句的主谓一致

例4:He is a boy who like reading。

改:He is a boy who likes reading。

注解:定语从句中的关系代词是用来取代先行词的,在单复数上应与先行词保持一致,所以原句中的从句谓语动词like应与先行词a boy在形式上保持一致,故like改为likes.

2.句子缺少谓语动词

例1:On the seashore, some people playing volleyball and some lying in the sun.

改:On the seashore, some people are playing volleyball and some are lying in the sun.

注解:谓语动词是不可以直接由分词来充当。

例2:The answer still unknown。

改:The answer is still unknown.或The answer remains unknown.

注解:原句中的still是个副词,unknown为形容词,所以少了谓语动词。

3.忽视平行结构

如果几个句子成分在内容和功能上相似时,我们需要让它们在形式上面保持一致,例如名词对名词,从句对从句。

例1:The best ways to maintain health are working out, taking a good rest and have a balanced diet。

改:The best ways to maintain health are working out, taking a good rest and having a balanced diet。

注解:这里的working out,taking a rest和having a balanced diet是并列的表语,形式上应保持一致,全部用动名词形式。

例2:Your semester grade is based not only on how well you do on each test, but also how you participate in class。

改:Your semester grade is based not only on how well you do on each test, but also on how you participate in class.

注解:这句话的并列结构应为based not only on…but also on…。这里并列的对象为on how well you do on each test和on how you participate in class,所以but also 后的on是不可以省去的。

4.双谓语

英语语法规定,除非有连词存在,否则一个句子基本上只能有一个谓语动词,但是由于汉语句子里是可以允许多个动词存在,所以这是中国学生最常犯的一个错误。

There be 句型后出现动词原形

例1:There is an old man live in that room.

改:There is an old man living in that room.或There is an old man who lives in that room.

注解:There be句型中的be动词已经是句子的谓语动词了,所以后面是不可以再直接出现谓语动词,可改成分词或从句。

动词原形做主语

例2:Play football is his favorite.

改:Playing football is his favorite.

注解:动词原形是不可以直接充当主语,需要改成相应的名词或动名词形式。

句子做主语

例3:The earth is round is obvious

改:It is obvious that the earth is round。

注解:一句话是不可以直接做主语的,需要加连词,改成主语从句。

两句话直接用逗号隔开

例4:He is a student, she is also a student.

改:He is a student。 She is also a student。或He is a student and she is also a student。

注解:句子是以句号结束的,句号里面的句子不可以有两个谓语动词存在,有连词存在除外。

5.从句使用错误

从句缺少连词

例1:The fact, he stole the book, surprised me.

改:The fact that he stole the book surprised me.

注解:原句表达的是同位语从句的意思,而同位语从句的连词that是不可以省略的,所以应加上that,而不是用逗号隔开。

一个从句出现两个连词

例2:It is obvious that how he solved the problem.

改:It is obvious that he solved the problem.或It is obvious how he solved the problem.

注解:原句中只有一个主语从句,但却出现两个连词,所以可以根据说话人想表达的意思,删去一个连词。

从句单独成一句话

例3:He bought many books. Because he likes reading.

改:He bought many books because he likes reading。

注解:从句是不可以单独成一句话的,需要有主句存在。像while这样的连词,也是一样,所以也不能直接说While books account for 14%.

误把副词当连词

例4:He is a student, however, she a teacher.

改:He is a student。 However, she a teacher。

注解:有些学生会把一些诸如however,meanwhile, thus这样的副词,当做是连词来使用,直接连接两个句子,这是错误的。当不确定某个词的词性是需要查阅一下词典。

从句少谓语动词

例5:Museums are places where visitors experiencing local cultures.

改:Museums are places where visitors can experience local cultures.

注解:从句本质上也是个句子变化而来的,所以是不能缺少谓语动词的,experiencing是分词形式,属于非谓语动词,所以原句是错的。

分词使用错误

在使用分词时要注意的就是它的逻辑主语,当分词位于句首作状语时,逻辑主语需与句子主语一样;其次需要注意的是应该用现在分词还是过去分词。分词与逻辑主语是主动关系时用现在分词;被动则用过去分词。

逻辑主语不一致

例1:Waiting for the bus, a bike hit me.

改:Waiting for the bus, I was hit by a bike.

注解:原句分词waiting的逻辑主语是I,而不是a bike,所以若分词结构不变,主句只能改成I做主语。当然,这个句子也可以改成状语从句When I was waiting for the bus, a bike hit me。

现在分词与过去分词用混

例2:Giving another chance, he would do better.

改:Given another chance, he would do better。

注解:原文中的he应该是被给机会,而不是给别人机会,所以为被动,应该成过去分词。

结语:在我们写文章碰到谓语动词时,应句子是否有谓语动词,谓语动词是否满足主谓一致,是否出现双谓语。写从句时,需要检查连词是够选择正确,还有从句的结构是否完整。用分词是,需要注意逻辑主语是否一致,现在和过去分词的选择是够正确。

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